Genetic diversity of Taiwan Yellow Cattle and Taiwan Black Goat
The conserved population of Taiwan Yellow Cattle in Hengchun Branch, LRI can be divided into 4 lines according to their pedigree i.e. Taiwan line (TW), Kinmen x Taiwan (KT), Taiwan Hengchun line (HC) and Kinmen line at Hengchun (KMHC). These four lines of Taiwan Yellow Cattle were subjected to compare with the original population of yellow cattle at Kinmen (KM) on the population differentiation and genetic distances by using 12 microsatellite markers. Results showed that these 5 populations were deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The average FIS was 0.184 for the conserved population and 0.189 for the KM population which indicated a medium level of inbreeding. The average FST for the 5 populations was 0.062 , which showed the differentiation level among populations was not high. The results of UPGMA and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed two divergent clusters. The individual unrooted phylogenetic tree showed that some individuals of KMHC were overlapped with TW, HC, KT and KM lines. It is possible that KMHC kept similar phenotypic characteristics and analogous genotypes between TW and KM. A significant inbreeding coefficient (FIS=0.185; P＜0.01) was detected which indicated a medium level of inbreeding in Taiwan Yellow Cattle. The mtRNA D-Loop analysis showed that 3 and 8 haplotypes existed respectively in the conserved Taiwan Black Goat (TBG) at Hengchun Branch and Hualien Station, LRI. The two populations of TBG at different areas have close genetic relationships. The existed populations of TBG were genetically related to those black goats in southeast China by sharing the same one haplotype. Eleven genetic markers were used to conduct the microsatellite analysis and the preliminary results showed that KM had medium Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) of 0.41 with average observed heterozygosity of 0.34 and average expected heterozygosity of 0.47. These results indicated that the genetic diversity of KM was not sufficient and more attention on the management of breed resources should be paid by the research unit and local farmers.
Breeding and selection of Hengchun Black Goat
A new meat breed of goat has been selecting by upgrading Nubian crosses with black Boer up to the third generation which consisted of 87.5% Boer blood since 1998. This new breed is expected to be registered officially as Hengchun Black Goat (HB) by the end of 2015. The coat color of HB is solid black with the average mature body weights of 86 and 64 kg at 36 months of age for males and females, respectively. These animals are meaty, hardy and of high growth performance. The dressing percentage and lean/carcass ratio were 62.1% and 67.2% for the castrated males finished and slaughtered at 13 to 14 months of age. HB does was prolific with 174.0% of kidding rate and 56.5% of twin rate. The average daily gain and feed conversion rate of HB were higher than that of Nubian and Boer. Sensory evaluation of meat resulted in better flavor, juiciness and total acceptability (P ＜ 0.05) in HB than that in Nubian and Boer.
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