Evaluating genetic diversity of registered breeding pigs by microsatellite markers
The genetic diversity protection of domesticated animals is one of the important targets of Aichi Biodiversity Targets adopted by the Tenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP10) to the Convention on Biological Diversity. A total of 240 pigs including 90 Landrace pigs, 60 Yorkshire pigs, and 90 Duroc pigs were genotyped using 18 microsatellite markers. In this study, the values of allele number, expected heterozygosity (He), observed heterozygosity (Ho), and polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 4–12, 4–8, and 3–8, 0.184–0.834, 0.089–0.789, and 0.171–0.812, 0.528–0.799, 0.339–0.817, and 0.422–0.761, and 0.399–0.757, 0.163–0.722, and 0.435–0.711 for Landrace (L), Yorkshire (Y), and Duroc (D), respectively. Moreover, the average values of He, Ho, and PIC were 7.0, 6.2, and 5.8, 0.661, 0.678, and 0.594, 0.601, 0.621, and 0.533, and 0.614, 0.627, and 0.530 for L, Y, and D, respectively. Therefore, the average PIC values of three pig breeds were larger than 0.5. Particularly, the PIC of Duroc pigs was the largest among three breeds of pigs. The results indicated that the pig population possesses high genetic diversity. (R. B. Liaw, J. C. Chen, Y. S. Wang and M. C. Wu)
Study on Reproductive Performance of Landrace Sows Mated with Taiwan Duroc Boars
Evaluation on the Carcass Traits of Taiwan Duroc and Its Hybrid Hogs
The breeding goal of new Taiwan Duroc boars was to enhance the reproductive performance of Duroc. The Duroc sows have mated with KHAPS Black Pig boars selected by gene selection, and the preliminary goals of breeding and selection for Taiwan Duroc boars have reached after upgrading breeding programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the carcass traits of Taiwan Duroc and its hybrids were effected by upgrading breeding process. Data on carcass traits, including carcass weight (kg), dressing percentage (%), lean percentage (%), fat percentage (%), bone percentage (%), backfat thickness (cm), abdominal fat thickness (cm), loin eye area (cm2), carcass length (cm), and pairs of ribs in 19 of Taiwan Duroc (R; 10 barrows and 9 gilts) and 25 of its hybrids LR (L ♀ × R ♂; 16 barrows and 9 gilts), were collected. Regardless of gender, the results showed that carcass weight (kg), dressing percentage (%), lean percentage (%), fat percentage (%), bone percentage (%), backfat thickness (cm), abdominal fat thickness (cm), loin eye area (cm2), carcass length (cm), and pairs of ribs in LR and R pigs were 102.19 ± 3.56 and 97.08 ± 3.81; 87.44 ± 2.25 and 87.00 ± 3.66; 53.48 ± 1.90 and 53.38 ± 2.26; 10.20 ± 1.96 and 9.45 ± 1.74; 15.16 ± 1.45 and 15.47 ± 0.97; 2.18 ± 0.34 and 1.94 ± 0.33; 2.45 ± 0.29 and 2.44 ± 0.39; 51.82 ± 6.74 and 48.45 ± 5.17; 105.42 ± 2.59 and 101.82 ± 2.30; 15.38 ± 0.48 and 15.37 ± 0.50, respectively. Here, these results were compared with the results presented from Livestock Research Institute before, the backfat thickness, loin eye area and carcass length in LR and R pigs were similar to those of Berkshire, Landrace, Yorkshire, Duroc and KHAPS Black Pig. In addition, the dressing, lean and fat percentage in LR and R pigs were better than those of KHAPS Black Pigs. (C. H. Chen, N. T. Yen, T. C. Wan, W. S. Chen and M. C. Wu)
Investigation on the Frequencies of Halothane and Estrogen Receptor Genes of Breeding Pigs among Black Pig Farms in Taiwan
In order to assist the gene selection of the Black pig farms in Taiwan, 171 breeding pigs, includes five breeds such as the KHAPS Black pigs, Meishan pigs, Taoyuan pigs, Liou-Duai Black pigs, and hybrid Black pigs, were used for preliminary investigating the gene frequency distribution of halothane (Hal-1843) and estrogen receptor (ESR) genes. The results showed that the CC, CT and TT (stress-sensitive type) genotype frequencies of Hal-1843 gene, were 1.000, 0.000 and 0.000 in KHAPS Black pigs; 1.000, 0.000 and 0.000 in Meishan pigs; 1.000, 0.000 and 0.000 in Taoyuan pigs; 0.966, 0.034 and 0.000 in Liou-Duai Black pigs; and 0.928, 0.072 and 0.000 in hybrid Black pigs, respectively. And the T allele frequency of Hal-1843 gene for KHAPS Black pigs, Meishan pigs, Taoyuan pig, Liou-Duai Black pig and hybrid Black pigs was 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.017 and 0.036, respectively. In addition, the AA (non-prolific type), AB and BB (prolific type) genotype frequencies of ESR gene were, 0.000, 0.000 and 1.000 in KHAPS Black pigs; 0.000, 0.000 and 1.000 in Meishan pigs; 0.211, 0.578 and 0.211 in Taoyuan pigs; 0.069, 0.276 and 0.655 in Liou-Duai Black pigs; and 0.478, 0.218 and 0.304 in hybrid Black pigs, respectively. And the B allele frequency of ESR gene for KHAPS Black pigs, Meishan pigs, Taoyuan pigs, Liou-Duai Black pigs, and hybrid Black pigs was 1.000, 1.000, 0.500, 0.793 and 0.413, respectively. These results demonstrated that there still have stress-sensitive gene existed with low percentage in Liou-Duai and hybrid Black pigs, and there is massive potential for ESR gene selection in Taoyuan pigs and hybrid Black pigs. We will continually to help the Black pig industry to remove these unfavorable genes in the future. (C. H. Chen, N. T. Yen, M. C. Wu)
EVALUATION ON THE MEAT TRAITS OF TAIWAN DUROC AND ITS HYBRID PIGS
The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical characteristics of Longissimus dorsi in Taiwan Duroc and its hybrids LR (L ♀ × R ♂) for understanding the carcass traits and creating appropriate processing ways in the future. The experiment including 19 Taiwan Duroc (10 barrows and 9 gilts) and 25 hybrids (16 barrows and 9 gilts), after slaughtered and carcasses cut into three parts, including shoulder, belly and hams. Taken some Longissimus dorsi samples back for weighting lean meat, fat and bone content and estimating carcasses traits. Proximate analysis (moisture, ash, crude protein and crude fat), meat colored (L, a, b value), physical analysis (drip loss, water holding capacity, cooking loss, shear force and hardness) and sensory evaluation (aroma, flavor , color, chewiness and acceptance) were evaluated. The results showed that LR pigs had higher ash, crude protein and drip loss than those of Taiwan Duroc (P < 0.05), but Taiwan Duroc had higher crude fat and sensory acceptance than those of LR pigs (P < 0.05). The carcass traits showed that Taiwan Duroc had lower fat percentage, backfat thickness and abdominal fat thickness than those of LR pigs, except crude fat content. (C. H. Chen, T. C. Wan, N. T. Yen, M. C. Wu and W. S. Chen)
BODY CONFORMATION TRAITS IN TAIWAN DUROC
The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in body conformation traits between boars and sows of new breed Taiwan Duroc by the collected body conformation traits. A new Taiwan Duroc (Duroc 93.75% × Meishan 6.25%) was developed by crossing KHAPS boars (Duroc 50% × Meishan 50%) with Duroc sows according to the upgrading breeding program. The average body weight, body height, body length, breast circle, foot circle, back width, front width, breast depth, backfat thickness of new Taiwan Duroc at 147 ± 3 day-olds of age were 96.77 ± 11.35 kg, 59.59 ± 6.90 cm, 108.75 ± 5.31 cm, 103.88 ± 6.38 cm, 19.44 ± 1.03 cm, 32.02 ± 2.76 cm, 33.78 ± 2.66 cm, 33.62 ± 1.76 cm, and 1.92 ± 0.30 cm in boars; 90.40 ± 6.45 kg, 55.75 ± 4.70 cm, 109 ± 4.78 cm, 103 ± 4.60 cm, 18.50 ± 1.08 cm, 31.35 ± 2.40 cm, 31.55 ± 2.29 cm, 33.9 ± 2.58 cm and1.94 ± 0.28 cm in sows, respectively. These data showed that all body conformation traits in boars were larger than sows in the new Taiwan Duroc except for the body length. (C. H. Chen, N. T. Yen and M. C. Wu)
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