Effects of taraxacum mongolicum extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide and cytokines production by milk somatic cells
To investigate the effect of the anti-inflammatory activity of Taraxacum mongolicum extract (TME) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses was studied in the milk somatic cells. Isolated milk somatic cells were pretreated with various concentrations (31 to 500, μg/ml) of TME and subsequently incubated with LPS (1 μg/ml). Cell viability was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenylthiazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-8 levels in the culture medium of somatic cells were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA expression levels of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed no significantly cytotoxic effects on the somatic cells were observed at the used concentrations of TME, which was determined by MTT assay. Treatment of TME (63, 125, 250, 500 μg/ml) significantly inhibited NO, IL-8 production in LPS-stimulated somatic cells (P < 0.05). And, TME significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated IL-1β and TNF-α, mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner in somatic cells. In conclusion, the TME significantly inhibited production of NO, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated somatic cells.
(K. H. Lee, J. Y. Chen, F. C. Hsiao, S. H. Wang, J. S. Chao, Y. H. Chen, L. T. Wu, C. L. Chang and C. H. Chi)
Effects of taraxacum mongolicum on in vitro response of milk somatic cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in vivo
The anti-inflammatory effects of Taraxacum mongolicum (TM) were investigated in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows, in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, isolated milk somatic cells were pretreated with various concentrations (31 to 500, μg/ml) of TM extract (TME) and subsequently incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/ml). The results show that TME treatment had no effect on cell viability; however, it significantly suppressed LPS-induced expression of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin(IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in milk somatic cells, in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, 14 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows, with subclinical mastitis, were randomly assigned to two groups and fed a diet with (treatment group, n=7, 150 g TM powder per head per day) or without (control group, n=7) TM supplementation for 14 days. Cows fed with TM powder had a significantly (P<0.05) reduced somatic cell count, total bacteria count and IL-8 in milk compared to the control group. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory effects of TM were associated with down-regulation of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Addition of TM as a dietary supplement might minimize the impact of subclinical bovine mastitis.
(K. H. Lee, C. C. Yeh, J. W. Lee, J. Y. Chen, C. L. Chang, T. Y. Ho, L. Y. Liu and C. H. Chi)
Effects of Taraxacum Mongolicum extract on ipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide and cytokines production by bovine mammary epithelial cells
The objective of this study is to investigate Taraxacum mongolicum as a therapeutic alternative for preventing and treating bovine mastitis. The effect of the anti-inflammatory activity of Taraxacum mongolicum extract (TME) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses was studied in the bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T). The dried plant Taraxacum mongolicum was extracted with 10 volumes of distilled water to generate its water extract. MAC-T cells were pretreated with various concentrations of TME (0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 μg/ml) and subsequently incubated with LPS (10μg/ml). Cell viability was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylthiazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The level of nitric oxide (NO) was determined by using Griess reagent assay. The mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and granulocyte chemotactic protein (GCP)-2 were determined by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results showed no significantly cytotoxic effecfs on the MAC-T cells at various treated concentrations of TME. Treatment of TME (10, 100, 1000 μg/ml) significantly inhibited NO production in LPS-stimulated MAC-T cells. TME (100 μg/ml) significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and GCP-2 mRNA expression in MAC-T cells at a time-dependent manner. In this article, we reported for the first time that TME significantly inhibited production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPSstimulated MAC-T cells. This finding could be useful for clinical practice in preventing and treating bovine mastitis.
(K. H. Lee, K. C. Hsu,Y. S. Wang, C. C. Yeh, J. Y. Chen, C. L. Chang and C. H. Chi)
Effects of Sheng Hua Tang on uterine involution and ovarian activity in postpartum dairy cows
The effects of Sheng Hua Tang (SHT) on uterine involution and ovarian activity were investigated in postpartum dairy cows. SHT (70 g) was given to dairy cows (n = 10) to evaluate its effects for five days from the first postpartum day. Postpartum cows fed with a basal diet without SHT were used as the control group (n = 10). Ultrasounds and blood tests were recorded for four weeks from postpartum day seven with a 3-d interval. The results showed that the areas and diameters of endometria were significantly (p<0.01) reduced in the group that received SHT compared to the control group on the seventh postpartum day. The group that received SHT had an intrauterine fluid volume mean of 1.2 ± 0.6 cm3, which was significantly lower than that of the control group, 2.3 ± 0.8 cm3 (p<0.01) on the 13th postpartum day. In addition, the uterine tension score was a mean of 1.0 ± 0.0 in the group that received SHT, which was also significantly lower than that of the control group, 1.5 ± 0.5 (p<0.01) on the 19th postpartum day. Taken together, the Chinese herbal medicine remedy, SHT, promoted uterine involution and ovarian activity in postpartum dairy cows.
(K. H. Lee, Y. T. Lee1, T. C. Chen, C. C. Yeh, J. Y. Chen, L. Y. Liu and C. H. Chi)
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