Effects of processing methods of velvet antler from Formosan Sambar deer on quality and immunomodulatory activities
The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical compositions and microbial quality of Formosan sambar deer velvet products, and the effects of velvet antler (VA) extracts on the anti-infective and anti- inflamed activities. Fresh VA was chopped into four sections. From top to bottom were the tip, the upper, the middle and the base sections, respectively. The chemical compositions in fresh and powder of VA were compared. The moisture content of four sections fresh VA were range 60.6 ~ 67.6 %. After dry treatment, the moisture content was just only 0.14 ~ 2.37 %. Crude protein was the second main composition in fresh VA, range from 17.2 ~ 21.7 %. The protein content became the main composition after dry treatment, and was 47.2 ~ 60.1 %. The tip had the highest protein content. The results of microbial quality of VA products showed that the tip of fresh VA had the highest total bacterial counts, and it was 4.24 log CFU/g (wet weight). The VA treated by oven or soaked in wine by one month, and there were no bacterial counts can be detected. For in vivo study, animal tests in S. aureus-infected mice demonstrated that the numbers of infected bacteria in the kidneys and peritoneal lavage fluid of S. aureus-infected mice were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those found in the same organs of mice orally administered with the VA boiled or VA powder. Moreover, the mice were pretreated with VA boiled and 5 mg/20g body weight or high dosage of VA powder produced significantly lower levels (P < 0.05) of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TGF-β1 than the positive control group.
Furthermore, the in vivo anti-allergic activity of the VA powder was performed by ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mouse model. The concentrations of total IgE and OVA-specific IgE in sera of OVA-sensitized mice were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than administrated VA powder for 4 weeks. Besides, the ex vivo results indicated that the secretion of Th1 (TNF-α, IL-2, IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21) cytokines by splenocytes were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the VA powder-administered mice groups.In conclusion, this study demonstrated the protective effects induced by the VA samples in S. aureus-infected and OVA-sensitized mouse models. The protective mechanisms of the VA samples might include a Th1 responses immune enhancer and a pro-inflammatory cytokine modulator.
(C. Y. Kuo, C. H. Wang and M. J. Chen)
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